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Since , I have kept a bibliography of commentary on assertions that the Haudenosaunee Iroquois and other Native American confederacies helped shape ideas of democracy in the early United States.
By , the bibliography had reached roughly items from more than books, as well as newspaper articles and book reviews numbering in the hundreds, academic journals, films, speeches, documentaries, and other sources.
The bibliography was assembled with the help of friends, as well as searches of libraries and book stores, and personal involvement in various skirmishes of the debate.
The number of references exploded during because I began to search several electronic databases. Before I explored these databases, I had been acquainted with the spread of the idea on a more personal level, especially through debates in academia that have been chronicled with Donald A.
Now, I was watching the idea take on an animus of its own, detached from its scholarly moorings. As the debate expanded in popular consciousness, a grand cacophony of diverse voices debated the type of history with which we will enter a new millennium on the Christian calendar.
Despite its caricature as a horror story of "political correctness" and the jarring nature of some of the debate over the issue, the idea that Native American confederacies are an important early form of democracy has become established in general discourse.
History is made in many ways, by many people; the spread of the idea that Native American confederacies especially the Haudenosaunee Confederacy helped shape the intellectual development of democracy m the United States and Europe is an example of how our notions of history have been changing with the infusion of multicultural voices.
It is fascinating to watch the change in all its forms -- and the debate over the issue in all its cacophonous variety. This bibliography comprises the "field notes" of my journey.
Immigrants from Europe often have borrowed from native peoples, embraced this knowledge as their own, and then forgotten its origins.
Meanwhile, the prevailing assumptions of the "winners'" histories condemn Native Americans as primitive and brutish.
The reconstruction of history in its true complexity takes some work, since it often runs counter to the heavy weight of well-established assumptions.
So it has been in the evolution of democracy, [Richard] Williams [executive director of the American Indian College Fund] believes: Bork's Slouching Toward Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline from our Library's new-books shelf with a sense of impending ironic triumph.
Would I be able to add yet another sliming of my life's academic work by a neo-conservative household name who has never heard of me?
After consulting Bork's index under "Iroquois Confederacy," on pages and , I hit pay dirt. I ceased to be a mild-mannered middle-aged professor of principally Norwegian extraction who has spent 15 years at a Midwestern university teaching undergraduates how to write newspaper stories and essays on Black Elk.
Suddenly, I saw myself portrayed by Bork as a primary sloucher toward Gomorrah in his pantheon of politically motivated assassins of western civilization's most cherished canons, an advocate of the demon multiculturalism, and a bona fide barbarian at the Gate.
This is heady stuff for a professor from Nebraska. Oren Lyons at the UN: Opening Speech for "The Year of the Indigenous Peoples", This proclamation brings home inspiration and renewed dedication to our quest for self-determination, justice, freedom and peace in our Homelands and our Territories.
Indeed, the quest is a renewal of what we enjoyed before the coming of our White Brothers from across the sea. We were instructed to create societies based on the principles of Peace, Equity, Justice, and the Power of Good Minds.
Our societies are based upon great democratic principles of the authority of the people and equal responsibilities for the men and the women.
This was a great way of life across this Great Turtle Island and freedom with respect was everywhere.
Our leaders were instructed to be men of vision and to make every decision on behalf of the seventh generation to come; to have compassion and love for those generations yet unborn.
We were instructed to give thanks for All That Sustains Us. Thus, we created great ceremonies of Thanksgiving for the life-giving forces of the Natural World, as long as we carried out our ceremonies, life would continue.
We were told that 'The Seed is the Law. It is The Law of Regeneration. Within the seed is the mysterious force of life and creation. Our mothers nurture and guard that seed and we respect and love them for that.
Just as we love I hi do' hah, our Mother Earth, for the same spiritual work and mystery. In our time, the academic landscape teems with Native people who have the requisite degrees, academic positions and publication records to write excellent encyclopedia entries.
In , treaty commissioners at Albany recall the words of Canassatego. Dating the Iroquois Confederacy , by Bruce E. The Haudenosaunee Iroquois Confederacy, one of the world's oldest democracies, is at least three centuries older than most previous estimates, according to research by Barbara Mann and Jerry Fields of Toledo University, Ohio.
Using a combination of documentary sources, solar eclipse data, and Iroquois oral history, Mann and Fields assert that the Iroquois Confederacy's body of law was adopted by the Senecas the last of the five nations to ratify it August 31, The ratification council convened at a site that is now a football field in Victor, New York.
The site is called Gonandaga by the Seneca. I want to talk about our original treaties because we not only made treaties with the United States, but we also made treaties with other foreign countries, and perhaps the first one that we made was with the Dutch.
We used a wampum belt. That is, a two row wampum belt with two parallel lines on a field of white. We used wampum belts to help us commemorate our treaties.
Wampum, as you may know, is made of shell, a combination of quahog and the periwinkle shell, cut and made into tubular beads and then strung into a belt.
The purpose of the belt, to use an anthropological term, is as a mnemonic device for remembering important ideas, so that when the reader of the belt holds it in his hands, the idea literally comes from the belt.
On the one hand, we are travelling in our canoe, down the river of life, and travelling in a parallel line in their boat are those Europeans or Euro-Americans who are here on our land, Turtle Island.
We are travelling along and we have an agreement with one another. I am not going to get out of my canoe and get into your boat and try to steer it, and I am going to ask you not to get out of your boat and get into my canoe and try to steer it.
We are going to allow one another to exist. We are going to accept the notion, that we are sovereign, that we have our own form of government and that you have yours.
We have our own way of life, and that you have yours, and that we are not trying to convince you to be us; we are trying to convince you that because of our long history here, we have a knowledge of this place where we live.
And so, we use this two row wampum belt even now, as the basis for all of the other treaties that we made after this time. Over the past 18 months, the Haudenosaunee Environmental Task Force has labored on a document which would begin the process of detailing the environmental impacts that the western society has had on our lands and territories.
The proposed Summit is a combination of several months of intense work, both by United Nations Environmental Programme UNEP and the task force established by the Confederacy to review the range of environmental hazards to which their communities have been exposed and to document as precisely as possible, the sources and nature of these hazards, as well as to design a plan of action for their remediation and the environmental restoration of the territories in question.
We, the Haudenosaunee, bring our case to the United Nations to draw international attention to the environmental issues affecting the indigenous communities in North America.
Having made a major contribution to the Rio Earth Summit in bringing about Chapter 26 of Agenda 21 , we maintain that our traditional strategy for sustainable development practices and coexistence is a model for the future survival of humanity on earth.
We are committed to continuing our sustainable economic practices. Principles for Environmental Restoration p. Chapter 26 of Agenda 21 formulated at the Rio Earth Summit recognizes the right of the indigenous communities and their representatives to undertake reviews as well as develop environmental strategies with regard to land and water based pollution.
The restoration must not be confined just to removing the wastes and pollution, but must also be extended to the social and cultural dimensions of the communities, the nations and the Confederacy.
As sovereign governments, the Haudenosaunee have complete jurisdiction over native territories. The Haudenosaunee jurisdiction should extend cooperatively to the surrounding areas that impact the ecosystem of the native territories.
Haudenosaunee should be assured adequate international legal resources that must ensure that the U. The hard work of the Haudenosaunee on behalf of the world's native populations have won for them many friends at the UN.
On July 18 the Confederacy had official representatives from all six nations. This document summarizes the current conditions on Iroquois lands and offers concrete solutions to return Mother Earth to her former state.
It proposes the creation of an indigenous environmental learning center to study problem areas and offer solutions.
This center would also coordinate information, define economic development strategies and assist in the preservation of culture. Among us, it is women who are responsible for fostering life.
In our traditions, it is women who carry the seeds, both of our own future generations and of the plant life. It is women who plant and tend the gardens, and women who bear and raise the children.
It is my right and duty, as a woman and a mother and a grandmother, to speak to you about these things, to bring our minds together on them.
In making any law, our chiefs must always consider three things: We believe that all lawmakers should be required to think this way, that all constitutions should contain these rules.
We are the carriers of knowledge and ideas that the world needs today. We know how to live with this land: Our families are beyond the small, isolated nuclear families that are so convenient to big industry and big government and so damaging to communities.
The Haudenosaunee Report commends the European Parliament, which earlier this month, in a stringing rebuff to Europe's biotechnology industry, rejected a directive that would have granted legal protection to patents on life forms.
Many members of the European Parliament view all patenting of life forms as unethical and morally reprehensible. We are instructed to carry a love for one another and to show a great respect for all the beings of this earth.
We were shown that our life exists with the tree life, that our well-being depends on the well-being of the vegetable life, that we are close relations of the four-legged beings.
In our ways spiritual consciousness is the highest form of politics. Iroquois Population in , by Doug George-Kanentiio, p. It is not unreasonable to guess the Iroquois numbered in the hundreds of thousands.
Physical evidence seems to sustain this argument because there is virtually no place within our aboriginal territories which was not settled, cultivated or otherwise occupied by the Iroquois.
According to the Canadian and U. The council of fifty thereafter ruled on disputes, seeking consensus in their decisions.
This allowed the Iroquois to increase in numbers while their rivals declined. The confederacy did not speak for all five tribes, which continued to act independently.
But about ,  the council exerted more power in negotiations with the colonial governments of Pennsylvania and New York.
As has been noted above, other Iroquoian-language peoples were encountered by early European colonists. While the tribes raided each other, they also traded with the members of the Iroquois who were nearby.
By the Susquehannock [e] were known to be broken as a power from the effects of three years of epidemic disease, war with the Iroquois, and frontier battles, as settlers took advantage of the weakened tribe.
According to one theory of early Iroquois history, after becoming united in the League, the Iroquois invaded the Ohio River Valley in the territories that would become the eastern Ohio Country down as far as present-day Kentucky to seek additional hunting grounds.
They displaced about Siouan -speaking tribepeople of the Ohio River valley, such as the Quapaw Akansea , Ofo Mosopelea , and Tutelo and other closely related tribes out of the region.
These tribes migrated to regions around the Mississippi River and the piedmont regions of the east coast. They made war primarily against neighboring Algonquian peoples.
Muir uses archaeological data to argue that the Iroquois expansion onto Algonquian lands was checked by the Algonquian adoption of agriculture.
This enabled them to support their own populations large enough to have sufficient warriors to defend against the threat of Iroquois conquest.
The Iroquois may be the Kwedech described in the oral legends of the Mi'kmaq nation of Eastern Canada. These legends relate that the Mi'kmaq in the late pre-contact period had gradually driven their enemies — the Kwedech — westward across New Brunswick , and finally out of the Lower St.
Archeologists and anthropologists have defined the St. Lawrence Iroquoians as a distinct and separate group and possibly several discrete groups , living in the villages of Hochelaga and others nearby near present-day Montreal , which had been visited by Cartier.
By , when Samuel de Champlain visited the area, that part of the St. Lawrence River valley had no settlements, but was controlled by the Mohawk as a hunting ground.
The fate of the Iroquoian people that Cartier encountered remains a mystery, and all that can be stated for certain is when Champlain arrived, they were gone.
The precise identity of any of these groups is still debated. On 29 July , Champlain assisted his allies in defeating a Mohawk war party by the shores of what is now called Lake Champlain, and again in June , Champlain fought against the Mohawks.
The Iroquois became well known in the southern colonies in the 17th century by this time. After the first English settlement in Jamestown, Virginia , numerous 17th-century accounts describe a powerful people known to the Powhatan Confederacy as the Massawomeck , and to the French as the Antouhonoron.
They were said to come from the north, beyond the Susquehannock territory. In , an Iroquois war party, consisting mostly of Senecas and Mohawks, destroyed the Huron village of Wendake.
In turn, this ultimately resulted in the breakup of the Huron nation. With no northern enemy remaining, the Iroquois turned their forces on the Neutral Nations on the north shore of Lakes Erie and Ontario, the Susquehannocks, their southern neighbor.
Then they destroyed other Iroquoian-language tribes, including the Erie , to the west, in , over competition for the fur trade.
After their victories, they reigned supreme in an area from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean; from the St. Lawrence River to the Chesapeake Bay.
At that time the Iroquois numbered about 10,, insufficient to offset the European immigration of up to , people a year. They had become victims of their own success.
The Five Nations of the League established a trading relationship with the Dutch at Fort Orange modern Albany, New York , trading furs for European goods, an economic relationship that profoundly changed their way of life and led to much over-hunting of beavers.
Between and , the Iroquois established seven villages on the northern shores of Lake Ontario in present-day Ontario , collectively known as the "Iroquois du Nord" villages.
The villages were all abandoned by Over the years —, the Five Nations achieved political dominance of much of Virginia west of the Fall Line and extending to the Ohio River valley in present-day West Virginia and Kentucky.
As a result of the Beaver Wars, they pushed Siouan -speaking tribes out and reserved the territory as a hunting ground by right of conquest.
They finally sold the British colonists their remaining claim to the lands south of the Ohio in at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix.
Beginning in , the League engaged in a decades-long series of wars, the so-called Beaver Wars , against the French, their Huron allies, and other neighboring tribes, including the Petun, Erie, and Susquehannock.
During the Beaver Wars, they were said to have defeated and assimilated the Huron , Petun , the Neutral Nation ,   Erie Tribe , and Susquehannock Recent scholarship has elaborated on this view, arguing that the Beaver Wars were an escalation of the "Mourning Wars", which were an integral part of early Iroquoian culture.
The Mohawk would not allow northern native peoples to trade with the Dutch. In , Jesuit missionaries at Sainte-Marie among the Hurons went as envoys to the Mohawk lands to protect the fragile peace of the time.
Mohawk attitudes toward the peace soured while the Jesuits were traveling, and their warriors attacked the party en route.
The missionaries were taken to the village of Ossernenon near present-day Auriesville , New York , where the moderate Turtle and Wolf clans recommended setting the priests free.
In during the Beaver Wars , the Iroquois used recently purchased Dutch guns to attack the Huron, who were allied with the French.
These attacks, primarily against the Huron towns of Taenhatentaron St. Ignace  and St. Louis  in what is now Simcoe County , Ontario were the final battles that effectively destroyed the Huron Confederacy.
In the early 17th century, the Iroquois Confederacy was at the height of its power, with a total population of about 12, people.
The Jesuits were forced to abandon the mission by as hostilities resumed, possibly because of the sudden death of native people from an epidemic of smallpox , a European infectious disease to which they had no immunity.
From to , the Iroquois were at war with the Susquehannock and their Lenape and Province of Maryland allies.
In , a large Iroquois invasion force was defeated at the Susquehannock main fort. In , the Iroquois were at war with the Sokoki tribe of the upper Connecticut River.
Smallpox struck again, and through the effects of disease, famine, and war, the Iroquois were under threat of extinction.
In , an Oneida party struck at allies of the Susquehannock on Chesapeake Bay. In , three of the Five Nations made peace with the French. The French Jesuit missionaries were known as the "black-robes" to the Iroquois, who began to urge that Catholic converts should relocate to the village of Caughnawga outside of Montreal.
Around , the Iroquois drove the Siouan-speaking Mannahoac tribe out of the northern Virginia Piedmont region. They began to claim ownership of the territory by right of conquest.
In , the Iroquois were defeated by a war party of Susquehannock. The Iroquois appealed to the French for support and asked Governor Frontenac to assist them against the Susquehannock.
It would be a shame for him to allow his children to be crushed, as they saw themselves to be As no record of a defeat has been found, historians have concluded that no defeat occurred.
By , the Iroquois formed an alliance with the English through an agreement known as the Covenant Chain.
By , the Iroquois Confederacy was in a strong position, having eliminated the Susquehannock and the Wampanoag, taken vast number of captives to increase the size of their population, and had secured an alliance with the English that guaranteed supplies of guns and ammunition.
These Iroquoian people had been a traditional and historic foe of the Confederacy. The Iroquois colonized the northern shore of Lake Ontario and sent raiding parties westward all the way to Illinois Country.
The tribes of Illinois were eventually defeated, not by the Iroquois, but by the Potawatomi. In , the Susquehannock, with Iroquois help, attacked Maryland's Piscataway and Mattawoman allies.
Peace was not reached until During the same period, French Jesuit missionaries were active in Iroquoia, which led to a voluntary mass relocation of many Haudenosaunee to the St.
Lawrence valley at Kahnawake and Kanesatake near Montreal. Lawrence valley as a buffer to keep the Haudenosaunee allied with the English living in what is now upstate New York away from Montreal, the center of the French fur trade.
Lawrence valley, historians commonly describe the Iroquois living outside of Montreal as the Canadian Iroquois while the Iroquois who remained in the historical heartland of Iroquoia in modern upstate New York are described as the League Iroquois.
In , the governor of New France, Joseph-Antoine Le Febvre de La Barre, decided to launch a punitive expedition against the Seneca, who were attacking French and Algonquian fur traders in the Mississippi river valley, and asked for the Catholic Haudenosaunee to contribute men for his expedition.
In , the Iroquois invaded Virginia and Illinois territory again and unsuccessfully attacked French outposts in the latter.
Trying to reduce warfare in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, later that year, the Virginia Colony agreed in a conference at Albany to recognize the Iroquois' right to use the North-South path, known as the Great Warpath , running east of the Blue Ridge , provided they did not intrude on the English settlements east of the Fall Line.
In July Denonville took with him on his expedition a mixed force of troupes de la Marine , French-Canadian militiamen, and Indian warriors from the Jesuit mission settlements, of which were Haudenosaunee.
On 13 August , an advance party of French soldiers walked into a Seneca ambush and were nearly killed to a man; however the Seneca had mistaken the advance party for the main French force and fled when the main French force came up.
Denonville ravaged the land of the Seneca , landing a French armada at Irondequoit Bay , striking straight into the seat of Seneca power, and destroying many of its villages.
Fleeing before the attack, the Seneca moved farther west, east and south down the Susquehanna River. Although great damage was done to the Seneca homeland, the Senecas' military might was not appreciably weakened.
The Confederacy and the Seneca developed an alliance with the English who were settling in the east. The destruction of the Seneca land infuriated the members of the Iroquois Confederacy.
On August 4, , they retaliated by burning to the ground Lachine , a small town adjacent to Montreal. Fifteen hundred Iroquois warriors had been harassing Montreal defenses for many months prior to that.
They finally exhausted and defeated Denonville and his forces. His tenure was followed by the return of Frontenac , who succeeded Denonville as Governor for the next nine years — Frontenac had been arranging a new plan of attack to lessen the effects of the Iroquois in North America.
Realizing the danger of continuing to hold the sachems, he located the 13 surviving leaders of the 50 originally taken and returned with them to New France in October In , Frontenac destroyed the village of Schenectady and in Frontenac burned down three Mohawk villages and took prisoners.
In , Frontenac decided to take the field against the Iroquois, although at this time he was seventy-six years of age. Frontenac decided to target the Oneida and Onondaga this time, instead of the Mohawk whom were the favorite enemies of the French.
With support from the French, the Algonquian nations drove the Iroquois out of the territories north of Lake Erie and west of present-day Cleveland, Ohio , regions which they had conquered during the Beaver Wars.
As pursuit was impracticable, the French army commenced its return march on August Under Frontenac's leadership, the Canadian militia became increasingly adept at guerrilla warfare, taking the war into Iroquois territory and attacking a number of English settlements.
The Iroquois never threatened the French colony again. The Iroquois claimed to have conquered this territory 80 years earlier.
France did not recognize the validity of the treaty, as it had settlements in the territory at that time and the English had virtually none.
Meanwhile, the Iroquois were negotiating peace with the French; together they signed the Great Peace of Montreal that same year. After the peace treaty with the French, the Iroquois remained mostly neutral.
During the course of the 17th century, the Iroquois had acquired a fearsome reputation among the Europeans, and it was the policy of the Six Nations to use this reputation to play off the French against the British in order to extract the maximum amount of material rewards.
Peter Schuyler , mayor of Albany, arranged for three Mohawk chiefs and a Mahican chief known incorrectly as the Four Mohawk Kings to travel to London in to meet with Queen Anne in an effort to seal an alliance with the British.
Queen Anne was so impressed by her visitors that she commissioned their portraits by court painter John Verelst.
The portraits are believed to be the earliest surviving oil portraits of Aboriginal peoples taken from life. In the first quarter of the 18th century, the Iroquoian-speaking Tuscarora fled north from the pressure of British colonization of North Carolina and intertribal warfare; they had been subject to having captives sold into Indian slavery.
They petitioned to become the sixth nation of the Iroquois Confederacy. This was a non-voting position, but they gained the protection of the Haudenosaunee.
The Iroquois program toward the defeated tribes favored assimilation within the 'Covenant Chain' and Great Law of Peace, over wholesale slaughter.
Both the Lenni Lenape, and the Shawnee were briefly tributary to the Six Nations, while subjected Iroquoian populations emerged in the next period as the Mingo , speaking a dialect like that of the Seneca, in the Ohio region.
In and , Lt. But, as European settlers began to move beyond the Blue Ridge and into the Shenandoah Valley in the s, the Iroquois objected.
Virginia officials told them that the demarcation was to prevent the Iroquois from trespassing east of the Blue Ridge, but it did not prevent English from expanding west.
Tensions increased over the next decades, and the Iroquois were on the verge of going to war with the Virginia Colony.
In , Governor Gooch paid them the sum of pounds sterling for any settled land in the Valley that was claimed by the Iroquois.
The following year at the Treaty of Lancaster , the Iroquois sold Virginia all their remaining claims in the Shenandoah Valley for pounds in gold.
The Iroquois hoped that aiding the British would also bring favors after the war. Few Iroquois warriors joined the campaign.
By contrast, the Canadian Iroquois supported the French. In , refugees from is now southern-western Germany known as the Palatines appealed to the Iroquois clan mothers for permission to settle on their land.
On 9 July , a force of British Army regulars and the Virginia militia under General Edward Braddock advancing into the Ohio river valley was almost completely destroyed by the French and their Indian allies at the Battle of the Monongahela.
Johnson attempted to ambush a force of 1, French troops and Canadian Iroquios under the command of Baron Dieskau, who beat off the attack and killed the old Mohawk war chief, Peter Hendricks.
In February , the French learned from a spy, Oratory, an Oneida chief, that a British were stockpiling supplies at the Oneida Carrying Place , a crucial portage between Albany and Oswego to support an offensive in the spring into what is now Ontario.
On 13 March , an Oswegatchie Indian traveler informed the expedition that the British had built two forts at the Oneida Carrying Place, which caused the majority of the Canadian Iroquois to want to turn back, as they argued the risks of assaulting a fort would mean too many casualties, and many did in fact abandon the expedition.
They killed everyone they encountered". The crucial difference between the European and First Nations way of war was that Europe had millions of people, which meant that British and French generals were willing to see thousands of their own men die in battle in order to secure victory as their losses could always be made good; by contrast, the Iroquois had a considerably smaller population, and could not afford heavy losses, which could cripple a community.
The Iroquois custom of "Mourning wars" to take captives who would become Iroquois reflected the continual need for more people in the Iroquois communities.
Iroquois warriors were brave, but would only fight to the death if necessary, usually to protect their women and children; otherwise, the crucial concern for Iroquois chiefs was always to save manpower.
Peter MacLeod wrote that the Iroquois way of war was based on their hunting philosophy, where a successful hunter would bring down an animal efficiently without taking any losses to his hunting party, and in the same way, a successful war leader would inflict losses on the enemy without taking any losses in return.
The Iroquois only entered the war on the British side again in late after the British took Louisbourg and Fort Frontenac. Lawrence valley as he advanced towards Montreal, which he took in September After the war, to protect their alliance, the British government issued the Royal Proclamation of , forbidding Anglo-European white settlements beyond the Appalachian Mountains.
Colonists largely ignored the order, and the British had insufficient soldiers to enforce it. Faced with confrontations, the Iroquois agreed to adjust the line again in the Treaty of Fort Stanwix Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution , the Iroquois were creative and strategic thinkers.
They chose to sell to the British Crown all their remaining claim to the lands between the Ohio and Tennessee rivers, which they did not occupy, hoping by doing so to draw off English pressure on their territories in the Province of New York.
During the American Revolution , the Iroquois first tried to stay neutral. The Reverend Samuel Kirkland, a Congregational minister working as a missionary, pressured the Oneida and the Tuscarora for a pro-American neutrality while Guy Johnson and his cousin John Johnson pressured the Mohawk, the Cayuga and the Seneca to fight for the British.
Joseph Louis Cook offered his services to the United States and received a Congressional commission as a lieutenant colonel—the highest rank held by any Native American during the war.
The Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant , other war chiefs, and British allies conducted numerous operations against frontier settlements in the Mohawk Valley, including the Cherry Valley massacre , destroying many villages and crops, and killing and capturing inhabitants.
The destructive raids by Brant and other Loyalists led to appeals to Congress for help. Daniel Brodhead and General John Sullivan , against the Iroquois nations to "not merely overrun, but destroy", the British-Indian alliance.
They burned many Iroquois villages and stores throughout western New York; refugees moved north to Canada. By the end of the war, few houses and barns in the valley had survived the warfare.
In the aftermath of the Sullivan expedition, Brant visited Quebec City to ask General Sir Frederick Haildmand for assurances that the Mohawk and the other Loyalist Iroquois would receive a new homeland in Canada as compensation for their loyalty to the Crown if the British should lose.
The American Revolution was a war that caused a great divide amongst the colonists between Patriots and Loyalists; it caused a divide between the colonies and Great Britain, and it also caused a rift that would break the Iroquois Confederacy.
At the onset of the Revolution, the Iroquois Confederacy's Six Nations attempted to take a stance of neutrality.
However, almost inevitably, the Iroquois nations eventually had to take sides in the conflict. It is easy to see how the American Revolution would have caused conflict and confusion among the Six Nations.
For years they had been used to thinking about the English and their colonists as one and the same people. In the American Revolution, the Iroquois Confederacy now had to deal with relationships between two governments.
The Iroquois Confederation's population had changed significantly since the arrival of Europeans. Disease had reduced their population to a fraction of what it had been in the past.
Dealing with two governments made it hard to maintain a neutral stance, because the governments could get jealous easily if the Confederacy was interacting or trading more with one side over the other, or even if there was simply a perception of favoritism.
Because of this challenging situation, the Six Nations had to choose sides. The Oneida and Tuscarora decided to support the American colonists, while the rest of the Iroquois League the Cayuga, Mohawk, Onondaga, and Seneca sided with the British and their Loyalists among the colonists.
There were many reasons that the Six Nations could not remain neutral and uninvolved in the Revolutionary War.
One of these is simple proximity; the Iroquois Confederacy was too close to the action of the war to not be involved.
The Six Nations were very discontented with the encroachment of the English and their colonists upon their land.
They were particularly concerned with the border established in the Proclamation of and the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in During the American Revolution, the authority of the British government over the frontier was highly contested.
The colonists tried to take advantage of this as much as possible by seeking their own profit and claiming new land.
In , the Six Nations were still neutral when "a Mohawk person was killed by a Continental soldier". They were concerned about being killed, and about their lands being taken from them.
They could not show weakness and simply let the colonists and British do whatever they wanted. Many of the English and colonists did not respect the treaties made in the past.
In addition to being in close proximity to the war, the new lifestyle and economics of the Iroquois Confederacy since the arrival of the Europeans in North America made it nearly impossible for the Iroquois to isolate themselves from the conflict.
By this time, the Iroquois had become dependent upon the trade of goods from the English and colonists, and had adopted many European customs, tools, and weapons.
For example, they were increasingly dependent on firearms for hunting. As Barbara Graymont stated, "Their task was an impossible one to maintain neutrality.
Their economies and lives had become so dependent on each other for trading goods and benefits it was impossible to ignore the conflict.
Meanwhile they had to try and balance their interactions with both groups. They did not want to seem as they were favoring one group over the other, because of sparking jealousy and suspicion from either side".
Furthermore, the English had made many agreements with the Six Nations over the years, yet most of the Iroquois' day-to-day interaction had been with the colonists.
This made it a confusing situation for the Iroquois because they could not tell who the true heirs of the agreement were, and couldn't know if agreements with England would continue to be honored by the colonists if they were to win independence.
Supporting either side in the Revolutionary War was a complicated decision. Each nation individually weighed their options to come up with a final stance that ultimately broke neutrality and ended the collective agreement of the Confederation.
The British were clearly the most organized, and seemingly most powerful. In many cases, the British presented the situation to the Iroquois as the colonists just being "naughty children".
On the other, the Iroquois considered that "the British government was three thousand miles away. This placed them at a disadvantage in attempting to enforce both the Proclamation of and the Treaty at Fort Stanwix against land hungry frontiersmen.
The Iroquois also had concerns about the colonists. The British asked for Iroquois support in the war. The Iroquois Confederacy was particularly concerned over the possibility of the colonists winning the war, for if a revolutionary victory were to occur, the Iroquois very much saw it as the precursor to their lands being taken away by the victorious colonists, who would no longer have the British Crown to restrain them.
On a contrasting note, it was the colonists who had formed the most direct relationships with the Iroquois due to their proximity and trade ties.
For the most part, the colonists and Iroquois had lived in relative peace since the English arrival on the continent a century and a half before.
The Iroquois had to determine whether their relationships with the colonists were reliable, or whether the English would prove to better serve their interests.
They also had to determine whether there were really any differences between how the English and the colonists would treat them.
The war ensued, and the Iroquois broke their confederation. Hundreds of years of precedent and collective government was trumped by the immensity of the American Revolutionary War.
At the conclusion of the war the fear that the colonists would not respect the Iroquois' pleas came true, especially after the majority of the Six Nations decided to side with the British and were no longer considered trustworthy by the newly independent Americans.
In the Treaty of Paris was signed. While the treaty included peace agreements between all of the European nations involved in the war as well as the newborn United States, it made no provisions for the Iroquois, who were left to be treated with by the new United States government as it saw fit.
After the Revolutionary War, the ancient central fireplace of the League was re-established at Buffalo Creek. The United States and the Iroquois signed the treaty of Fort Stanwix in under which the Iroquois ceded much of their historical homeland to the Americans, which was followed by another treaty in at Canandaigua which they ceded even more land to the Americans.
Traditionally, for the Iroquois farming was woman's work and hunting was men's work; by the early 19th century, American policies to have the men farm the land and cease hunting were having effect.
By , Methodist and Episcopalian missionaries established missions to assist the Oneida and Onondaga in western New York. However, white settlers continued to move into the area.
By , a group of Oneida led by Eleazar Williams , son of a Mohawk woman, went to Wisconsin to buy land from the Menominee and Ho-Chunk and thus move their people further westward.
To partially replace the lands they had lost in the Mohawk Valley and elsewhere because of their fateful alliance with the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River , at Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation.
Brant's crossing of the river gave the original name to the area: By , European settlers began to settle nearby and named the village Brantford.
The original Mohawk settlement was on the south edge of the present-day Canadian city at a location still favorable for launching and landing canoes.
During the 18th century, the Catholic Canadian Iroquois living outside of Montreal reestablished ties with the League Iroquois.
Lawrence, a number of Iroquois men from Kahnawke were hired to help built and the Iroquois workers proved so skilled as steelwork erectors that since that time, a number of bridges and skycrapers in Canada and the United States have been built by the Iroquois steelmen.
The Six Nations council at Brantford tended to see themselves as a sovereign nation that was allied to the Crown through the Covenant Chain going back to the 17th century and thus allied to King George V personally instead of being under the authority of Canada.
The complex political environment which emerged in Canada with the Haudenosaunee grew out of the Anglo-American era of European colonization.
At the end of the War of , Britain shifted Indian affairs from the military to civilian control. With the creation of the Dominion of Canada in , civil authority, and thus Indian affairs, passed to Canadian officials with Britain retaining control of military and security matters.
At the turn of the century, the Canadian government began passing a series of Acts which were strenuously objected to by the Iroquois Confederacy.
Under the Soldiers Resettlement Act, legislation was introduced to redistribute native land. Finally in , an Act was proposed to force citizenship on "Indians" with or without their consent, which would then automatically remove their share of any tribal lands from tribal trust and make the land and the person subject to the laws of Canada.
The Haudenosaunee hired a lawyer to defend their rights in the Supreme Court of Canada. The Supreme Court refused to take the case, declaring that the members of the Six Nations were British citizens.
In effect, as Canada was at the time a division of the British government, it was not an international state, as defined by international law.
In contrast, the Iroquois Confederacy had been making treaties and functioning as a state since and all of their treaties had been negotiated with Britain, not Canada.
In response, the Iroquois began issuing their own passports and sent Levi General ,  the Cayuga Chief "Deskaheh,"  to England with their attorney.
Winston Churchill dismissed their complaint claiming that it was within the realm of Canadian jurisdiction and referred them back to Canadian officials.
After the meeting, the Native delegation brought the offer to the tribal council, as was customary under Haudenosaunee law. The council agreed to accept the offer, but before they could respond, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police conducted a liquor raid on the Iroquois' Grand River territory.
Deskaheh and the tribal attorney proceeded to Geneva and attempted to gather support. Only 26 ballots were cast. The long-term effect of the Order was that the Canadian government had wrested control over the Haudenosaunee trust funds from the Iroquois Confederation and decades of litigation would follow.
In , hoping again to clarify that judicial responsibilities of treaties signed with Britain were not transferred to Canada, several Alberta Indian chiefs filed a petition with the British High Court of Justice.
They lost the case but gained an invitation from the Canadian government to participate in the constitutional discussions which dealt with protection of treaty rights.
In , a long-running dispute over ownership of land at Oka, Quebec caused a violent stand-off. The Mohawk reservation at Oka had become dominated by a group called the Mohawk Warrior Society that emerged in smuggling across the U.
S-Canada border and were well armed with assault rifles. In a series of laws, attempting to mainstream tribal people into the greater society, the government strove to end the U.
In general the laws were expected to create taxpaying citizens, subject to state and federal taxes as well as laws, from which Native people had previously been exempt.
Its purpose was to settle for all time any outstanding grievances or claims the tribes might have against the U. Claims had to be filed within a five-year period, and most of the complaints that were submitted  were filed at the approach of the 5-year deadline in August, It covered all reservations lands within the state and prohibited the deprivation of hunting and fishing rights which may have been guaranteed to "any Indian tribe, band, or community, or members thereof.
It allowed the tribes to preserve customs, prohibited taxation on reservations,  and reaffirmed hunting and fishing rights. It also prohibited the state from enforcing judgments regarding any land disputes or applying any State Laws to tribal lands or claims prior to the effective date of the law 13 September The State of New York disavowed any intention to break up or deprive tribes of their reservations and asserted that they did not have the ability to do so.
On 1 August , United States Congress issued a formal statement, House Concurrent Resolution , which was the formal policy presentation announcing the official federal policy of Indian termination.
The resolution called for the "immediate termination of the Flathead , Klamath , Menominee , Potawatomi , and Turtle Mountain Chippewa , as well as all tribes in the states of California , New York , Florida , and Texas.
The resolution also called for the Interior Department to quickly identify other tribes who would be ready for termination in the near future. Beginning in , a Federal task force began meeting with the tribes of the Six Nations.
Despite tribal objections, legislation was introduced into Congress for termination. On 31 August ,  H.
The bill authorized payment for resettling and rehabilitation of the Seneca Indians who were being dislocated by the construction of the Kinzua Dam on the Allegheny River.
Though only Seneca families about people were being dislocated, the legislation benefited the entire Seneca Nation, because the taking of the Indian land for the dam abridged a treaty agreement.
In addition, the bill provided that within three years, a plan from the Interior Secretary should be submitted to Congress withdrawing all federal supervision over the Seneca Nation, though technically civil and criminal jurisdiction had lain with the State of New York since Accordingly, on 5 September a memo from the Department of the Interior announced proposed legislation was being submitted to end federal ties with the Seneca.
In a twist of fate, one former New York Tribe did lose its federal recognition. Though the law did not specifically state the Brothertown Indians were terminated, it authorized all payments to be made directly to each enrollee with special provisions for minors to be handled by the Secretary.
The payments were not subject to state or federal taxes. For the Haudenosaunee, grief for a loved one who died was a powerful emotion that if not attended would cause all sorts of problems for the grieving who if left without consolation would go mad.
One of the central features of traditional Iroquois life was the "mourning wars" when Haudenosaunee warriors would raid neighboring peoples in search of captives to replace those Haudenosaunee who had died.
Additionally war served as a way for young men to demonstrate their valor and courage, which was not a prerequisite for becoming a chief, but also essential if one wanted to get married and hence have sex.
The clan mothers would demand a "mourning war" to provide consolation and renewed spiritual strength for a family that lost a member to death by accusing the warriors of cowardice; either the warriors would go on a "mourning war" or would be marked as cowards forever, which make them unmarriageable.
Those slated for execution had to wear red and black facial paint and were "adopted" by a family who addressed the prisoner as "uncle", "aunt", "nephew" or "niece" depending on their age and sex, and would bring them food and water.
For Iroquois, the purpose of war was to take prisoners first and foremost, with the Onondaga chief Teganissorens telling the governor of New York, Sir Robert Hunter , in For these reasons, the Haudenosaunee engaged in tactics that the French, the British and later on the Americans all considered to be cowardly.
When European diseases that the Indians had no immunity to like smallpox devastated the Five Nations in the 17th century, causing thousands of deaths, the League began a period of "mourning wars" without precedent, which led to the virtual destruction of the Huron, Petun and Neutral peoples.
Despite taking thousands of captives, the Five Nations populations continued to fall, as diseases continued to take their toll while Jesuits, whom the Haudenosaunee were forced to accept after making peace with the French in , encouraged Catholic converts to move to the St.
The Iroquois League traditions allowed for the dead to be symbolically replaced through captives taken in "mourning wars", the blood feuds and vendettas that were an essential aspect of Iroquois culture.
Captives were generally adopted directly by the grieving family to replace the member s who had been lost. This process not only allowed the Iroquois to maintain their own numbers, but also to disperse and assimilate their enemies.
The adoption of conquered peoples, especially during the period of the Beaver Wars , meant that the Iroquois League was composed largely of naturalized members of other tribes.
Cadwallader Colden wrote, "It has been a constant maxim with the Five Nations, to save children and young men of the people they conquer, to adopt them into their own Nation, and to educate them as their own children, without distinction; These young people soon forget their own country and nation and by this policy the Five Nations make up the losses which their nation suffers by the people they lose in war.
By , two-thirds of the Oneida village were assimilated Algonquians and Hurons. At Onondaga there were Native Americans of seven different nations and among the Seneca eleven.
This tradition of adoption and assimilation was common to native people of the northeast but was quite different from European settlers' notions of combat.
At the time of first European contact the Iroquois lived in a small number of large villages scattered throughout their territory.
Each nation had between one and four villages at any one time, and villages were moved approximately every five to twenty years as soil and firewood were depleted.
Villages were usually built on level or raised ground, surrounded by log palisades and sometimes ditches. Within the villages the inhabitants lived in longhouses.
Longhouses varied in size from 15 to feet long and 15 to 25 feet in breadth. Their houses are mostly of one and the same shape, without any special embellishment or remarkable design.
When building a house, large or small,—for sometimes they build them as long as some hundred feet, though never more than twenty feet wide—they stick long, thin, peeled hickory poles in the ground, as wide apart and as long as the house is to be.
The poles are then bent over and fastened one to another, so that it looks like a wagon or arbor as are put in gardens.
Next, strips like split laths are laid across these poles from one end to the other. This is then well covered all over with very tough bark.
From one end of the house to the other along the center they kindle fires, and the area left open, which is also in the middle, serves as a chimney to release the smoke.
Often there are sixteen or eighteen families in a house This means that often a hundred or a hundred and fifty or more lodge in one house.
Usually, between 2 and 20 families lived in a single longhouse with sleeping platforms being 2 feet above the ground and food left to dry on the rafters.
In addition to the castles the Iroquois also had smaller settlements which might be occupied seasonally by smaller groups, for example for fishing or hunting.
Total population for the five nations has been estimated at 20, before After the population dropped to around 6,, chiefly due to the epidemic of smallpox introduced by contact with European settlers.
The typical clan consisted of about 50 to people. Cayuga Moiety A clans: Bear, Wolf Moeity B clans: Bear, Turtle Mohawk Moeity A clans: Wolf, Bear Moeity B clan: By the late s The Iroquois were building smaller log cabins resembling those of the colonists, but retaining some native features, such as bark roofs with smoke holes and a central fireplace.
The Iroquois are a mix of horticulturalists , farmers, fishers, gatherers and hunters, though their main diet traditionally has come from farming.
The cornstalks grow, the bean plants climb the stalks, and the squash grow beneath, inhibiting weeds and keeping the soil moist under the shade of their broad leaves.
In this combination, the soil remained fertile for several decades. The food was stored during the winter, and it lasted for two to three years.
When the soil in one area eventually lost its fertility, the Haudenosaunee moved their village. For the Iroquois, farming was traditionally women's work and the entire process of planting, maintaining, harvesting and cooking the "Three Sisters" were done by women.
Gathering is the traditional job of the women and children. Wild roots, greens, berries and nuts were gathered in the summer.
During spring, sap is tapped from the maple trees and boiled into maple syrup , and herbs are gathered for medicine. After the coming of Europeans, the Iroquois started to grow apples, pears, cherries, and peaches.
The Iroquois hunted mostly deer but also other game such as wild turkey and migratory birds. Muskrat and beaver were hunted during the winter.
Archaeologists have the bones of bison, elk, deer, bear, raccoon, and porcupines at Iroquois villages. Lawrence and Great Lakes areas.
The Iroquois used nets made from vegetable fiber with weights of pebbles for fishing. Lawrence became too polluted by industry. In the spring the Iroquois netted, and in the winter fishing holes were made in the ice.
In Johannes Megapolensis described Mohawk traditional wear. In summer they go naked, having only their private parts covered with a patch.
The children and young folks to ten, twelve and fourteen years of age go stark naked. In winter, they hang about them simply an undressed deer or bear or panther skin; or they take some beaver and otter skins, wild cat, racoon, martin, otter, mink, squirrel or such like skins On their feet the Iroquois wore moccasins , "true to nature in its adjustment to the foot, beautiful in its materials and finish, and durable as an article of apparel.
The moccason is made of one piece of deer-skin. It is seamed up at the heel, and also in front, above the foot, leaving the bottom of the moccasin without a seam.
In front the deer-skin is gathered, in place of being crimped; over this part porcupine quills or beads are worked, in various patterns.
The plain moccasin rises several inches above the ankle In Dutch official Adriaen van der Donck wrote:. Around their waist they all [i.
The men pull a length of duffel cloth—if they have it—under this belt, front and rear, and pass it between the legs.
It is like a petticoat, but under it, next to the body, they wear a deerskin which also goes around the waist and ends in cleverly cut pointed edging and fringes.
The wealthier women and those who have a liking for it wear such skirts wholly embroidered with wampum As for covering the upper part of the body both men and women use a sheet of duffel cloth of full width, i.
It is usually worn over the right shoulder and tied in a knot around the waist and from there hangs down to the feet. During the 17th century, Iroquois clothing changed rapidly as a result of the introduction of scissors and needles obtained from the Europeans, and the British scholar Michael Johnson has cautioned that European accounts of Iroquois clothing from the latter 17th century may not have entirely reflected traditional pre-contact Iroquois clothing.
By the latter 18th century, women were wearing muslin or calico long, loose-fitting overdresses. By the s most Iroquois were wearing the same clothing as their non-Iroquois neighbors.
Today most nations only wear their traditional clothing to ceremonies or special events. Men wore a cap with a single long feather rotating in a socket called a gustoweh.
Later, feathers in the gustoweh denote the wearer's tribe by their number and positioning. The Mohawk wear three upright feathers, the Oneida two upright and one down.
The Onondaga wear one feather pointing upward and another pointing down. The Cayuga have a single feather at a forty-five degree angle.
The Seneca wear a single feather pointing up, and the Tuscarora have no distinguishing feathers. Writing in Morgan wrote that women's outfits consisted of a skirt gä-kä'-ah "usually of blue broadcloth, and elaborately embroidered with bead-work.
It requires two yards of cloth, which is worn with the selvedge at the top and bottom; the skirt being secured about the waist and descending nearly to the top of the moccasin.
In front it is generally buttoned with silver broaches. The women wore their hair very long and tied together at the back, or "tied at the back of the head and folded into a tress of about a hand's length, like a beaver tail On the top of their heads they have a streak of hair from the forehead to the neck, about the breadth of three fingers, and this they shorten until it is about two or three fingers long, and it stands right on end like a cock's comb or hog's bristles; on both sides of this cock's comb they cut all the hair short, except for the aforesaid locks, and they also leave on the bare places here and there small locks, such as aree in sweeping brushes and then they are in fine array.
The women did not paint their faces. The men "paint their faces red, blue, etc. Plants traditionally used by the Iroquois include Agrimonia gryposepala , which was to treat diarrhea,  and interrupted fern , used for blood and venereal diseases and conditions.
The Iroquois also used quinine, chamomile, ipecac, and a form of penicillin. The Iroquois have historically followed a matriarchal system. No person is entitled to 'own' land, but it is believed that the Creator appointed women as stewards of the land.
Traditionally, the Clan Mothers appoint leaders, as they have raised children and are therefore held to a higher regard.
By the same token, if a leader does not prove sound, becomes corrupt or does not listen to the people, the Clan Mothers have the power to strip him of his leadership.
The Iroquois have traditionally followed a matrilineal system , with women holding property and hereditary leadership passing through their lines.
Historically women have held the dwellings, horses and farmed land, and a woman's property before marriage has stayed in her possession without being mixed with that of her husband.
Men and women have traditionally had separate roles but both hold real power in the Nations. The work of a woman's hands is hers to do with as she sees fit.
Historically, at marriage, a young couple lived in the longhouse of the wife's family. A woman choosing to divorce a shiftless or otherwise unsatisfactory husband is able to ask him to leave the dwelling and take his possessions with him.
The children of a traditional marriage belong to their mother's clan and gain their social status through hers. Her brothers are important teachers and mentors to the children, especially introducing boys to men's roles and societies.
The clans are matrilineal, that is, clan ties are traced through the mother's line. If a couple separates, the woman traditionally keeps the children.Wales durfte und nicht teilnehmen, da Kapitän Arthur Joseph Gould eine finanzielle Anerkennung erhalten hatte und die übrigen Verbände dies als unerlaubten Professionalismus betrachteten. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Six Nations Begriffsklärung aufgeführt. Obwohl die walisischen Turniersiege und noch in die Home-Nations-Ära fallen, gelten diese als Grand Slamsda die Waliser in beiden Jahren auch Frankreich schlugen. Frankreich war die erste Mannschaft, die den neuen Pokal dfb pokal bayern bremen Empfang nehmen durfte. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Six Nations Begriffsklärung aufgeführt. Frankreich war die erste Mannschaft, die den neuen Fußball em großbritannien in Beste Spielothek in Dippach finden nehmen durfte. Wales durfte und nicht teilnehmen, da Kapitän Arthur Joseph Gould eine finanzielle Anerkennung erhalten hatte und die übrigen Verbände dies als unerlaubten Professionalismus betrachteten. Nach zwölf Jahren mit gelegentlichen Freundschaftsspielen fand die erste Home International Blue lions casino bonus statt, an lotto gewinnquoten 6 aus 49 England, Irland, Schottland und Wales teilnahmen. Meinung Debatten User die Standard. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext fußball schauen live Versionsgeschichte. England und Schottland Frankreich und Italien spielen um die Giuseppe-Garibaldi-Trophäe. Drei Grand Slams hintereinander hat bisher noch keine Mannschaft geschafft. Nachrichten, die zu Ihnen kommen: Von biswährend des Ersten Weltkriegs und der unmittelbaren Nachkriegszeit, konnte das Turnier nicht Beste Spielothek in Wustrow finden werden. England TC und Frankreich Frankreich und Schottland England und Wales Irlands finaler Triumph 16 Postings. Im Gegensatz zu den meisten anderen Slot uri online wurde das sonst übliche Bonuspunktesystem bis zur Saison  nicht angewandt, da die theoretische Möglichkeit besteht, dass das Ergebnis verfälscht wird. Der Turniersieger wird in fünf Runden nach dem Prinzip jeder gegen jeden ermittelt, wobei das Heimrecht für jede Paarung jährlich wechselt. Eine Weiterverwendung und Reproduktion über den persönlichen Gebrauch hinaus ist nicht gestattet. Drei Grand Slams hintereinander hat bisher noch keine Mannschaft geschafft. England und Schottland England 38 Titel 28 ungeteilte, 10 geteilte. England, Schottland, Wales Alle meine Postings aktualisieren. Fünfmal konnte eine Mannschaft zweimal hintereinander alle Spiele gewinnen: Es gibt 0 Punkte für den Verlierer, 2 Punkte für ein Unentschieden, vier Punkte für den Sieger, 1 Bonuspunkt für vier oder mehr gelegte Versuche und 1 Bonuspunkt für eine Niederlage mit gleich oder weniger als 7 Punkten Differenz. Frankreich und Wales So wäre beispielsweise England Turniersieger nach Punkten geworden, obwohl Frankreich sämtliche Spiele gewann. Diverses Das wurde aus